Category Archives: Former issues

Vatican’s Campaign against the Liberation Theology: Fear of Marxist Contamination

The article written in 1984 presents the methods used by the top clergy in the Catholic Church to discredit liberation theology. A series of show trials against a theological system and theory is followed across continents during the time of general oppression and that time existing right-wing dictatorships in Latin America. What was the reason for the strict rejection by the church concerning a theology, which was openly standing up for the oppressed? What did the church want to protect so fiercely and ultimately against whom?
Original article: François Houtart: La peur d'une contagion marxist. Une grande offensive de Vatican contre la théologie de la libération. Le Monde diplomatique 1984. See at:

Light and Shadows: Catholic Church Leaders, Anti-Semitism and Holocaust during the Horthy Era (1920-1944)

Due to the lack of institutionally supported fundamental research and ideologically established partial taboos this topic is hardly examined. With selected resources, he shows that in this era church leaders transformed Catholicism into a racist concept, which excluded converted Jews as well, rejecting their assimilation. Instead of actual protection moral consolation was offered.

Anti-Francoist Social Movements in Barcelona: Social and Political Victims Become the Founders of a New Democratic Civil Society under Dictatorial Rule

In historians' circles it is common to describe the democratic transformation in Spain as the merit of the Francoist elite. In fact, the political transition was preceded by nearly two decade long movements developed from below and it was forced by the radical democratization of the masses and their growing protests against authoritarianism. The emerging movements identified themselves as victims of the Franco regime that created the bond between them and provided the necessary solidarity and moral superiority during the fight against the regime.

Divergent Middle Ways: Theoretical Categorisation of the Populist Movement

On the books István Papp: A magyar népi mozgalom története 1920-1990. [The History of the Hungarian Populist Movement 1920-1990] Budapest, Jaffa Kiadó, 2012; Bulcsu Bognár: A népies irányzat a két világháború között. Erdei Ferenc és a harmadikút képviselői. [The Populist Current between the World Wars: Ferenc Erdei and Representatives of the Third Way] Budapest, Loisir Kiadó, 2012.

About the Movement of “Populist Writers”

The movement of populist writers was a main theoretical-political current in the 1930s. The study examines the origins and periods of this movement. Populist writers expressed the discontent of middle classes, who were disapproving or opposing the regime but the ruling elite considered the threat of communists uniting with peasant movements more dangerous thus it tolerated or even supported the movement of the "populists". The study also shows why the program of the "third way" cannot be considered as a program of socialism.