Category Archives: Former issues

1968 in the Light of our Experiences

1968 is a symbol and resource – which many of us using on the political left -furthermore it has still living legends of theory, lifestyle and personal experience. Nonetheless, how was it in reality and what remained of it? The fate of great times has also touched 1968: it has partially became a tamed memory, an object of nostalgia that is why it is hard to notice that in a certain sense it supports restoring capitalism instead of – an illusory – victory of the left.

Original article: Александр Тарасов: 1968 год в свете нашего опыта, Scepsis (Moscow)

Historical Conditions and Limits of “Free Spiritual Production”

"This is why the meaning of free spiritual production cannot be understood in an idealistically absolutized sense, no matter how great the temptation might be to do so. For even in the work of the greatest intellectual figures be they creative artists or theoreticians [… it] continues to respond […] to the actually given conditions by making its own significant impact upon the emerging transformations of the existent. Nonetheless 'free spiritual production' is free in the genuine sense – and for the same reason also carries a great responsibility as an intellectual enterprise – precisely in the virtue of its undeniable active role in intervening, for better or worse in the unfolding historical process of which it is an integral part."

The article is the 4.1 chapter "Material Transformations and Ideological Forms" of the book Social Structure and Forms of Consciousness Vol II  by István Mészáros. Monthly Review Press 2011.

No. 99 | (Autumn 2013)

Four excellent articles address the theoretical and historical problems of social transformation in this issue of Eszmélet. Based on the links between the material and spiritual modes of production, István Mészáros describes the conditions and limits of "free spiritual production", showing that without transforming the whole system there is no way to the realm of freedom. Starting out on the lessons from 1968, Alexander Tasasov presents the historically determined way of transforming the system revolutionary by overcoming its limits. A still forceful article of Noble prize winning writer Gabriel García Márquez from 1974 analyses the historical roots and lessons of the fall of Allende and the excellent cultural sociologist Jim McGuigan reconstructs the leading ideas governing capitalism.

The second analytical block of this issue is focusing on the links between churches and nationalism – from a historical point of view. The articles differing in their genre are approaching the role of the institution and ideology from the question of maintaining the power of the rulers; ranging from the development of ideas rooted in the movement of Hungarian populist writers, through the connections between Catholicism and anti-Semitism, the theology of liberation to Pope Francis getting on the scene.


Table of contents
  1. Szarka Klára, Mitrovits Miklós, Krausz Tamás : Neo-Horthysm and the ‘Second Edition of Capilalism’
  2. Mészáros István : Historical Conditions and Limits of “Free Spiritual Production”
  3. Alekszandr Nyikolajevics Taraszov : 1968 in the Light of our Experiences
  4. Gabriel García Márquez : Why Allende Had to Die? Sedition in Santiago
  5. Bimbó Mihály : About the Movement of “Populist Writers”
  6. Barta Tamás : Divergent Middle Ways: Theoretical Categorisation of the Populist Movement
  7. Florian Musil : Anti-Francoist Social Movements in Barcelona: Social and Political Victims Become the Founders of a New Democratic Civil Society under Dictatorial Rule
  8. Jakab Attila : Light and Shadows: Catholic Church Leaders, Anti-Semitism and Holocaust during the Horthy Era (1920-1944)
  9. François Houtart : Vatican’s Campaign against the Liberation Theology: Fear of Marxist Contamination
  10. Patrick Michel, Jesús García-Ruiz : Neo-Pentecostalism in Latin America: Contribution to a Political Anthropology of Globalisation
  11. Jakab Attila : Pope Francis: Changes in the Vatican?
  12. Jim McGuigan : The Spirits of Capitalism
  13. Bózsó Péter : NOT Simple
  14. Tütő László : Whites in Africa
  15. Szarka Klára : Photographer on the Street: under the Pretext of the Pictures by Vilmos Skuta