Due to the lack of institutionally supported fundamental research and ideologically established partial taboos this topic is hardly examined. With selected resources, he shows that in this era church leaders transformed Catholicism into a racist concept, which excluded converted Jews as well, rejecting their assimilation. Instead of actual protection moral consolation was offered.
In historians' circles it is common to describe the democratic transformation in Spain as the merit of the Francoist elite. In fact, the political transition was preceded by nearly two decade long movements developed from below and it was forced by the radical democratization of the masses and their growing protests against authoritarianism. The emerging movements identified themselves as victims of the Franco regime that created the bond between them and provided the necessary solidarity and moral superiority during the fight against the regime.
On the books István Papp: A magyar népi mozgalom története 1920-1990. [The History of the Hungarian Populist Movement 1920-1990] Budapest, Jaffa Kiadó, 2012; Bulcsu Bognár: A népies irányzat a két világháború között. Erdei Ferenc és a harmadikút képviselői. [The Populist Current between the World Wars: Ferenc Erdei and Representatives of the Third Way] Budapest, Loisir Kiadó, 2012.
The movement of populist writers was a main theoretical-political current in the 1930s. The study examines the origins and periods of this movement. Populist writers expressed the discontent of middle classes, who were disapproving or opposing the regime but the ruling elite considered the threat of communists uniting with peasant movements more dangerous thus it tolerated or even supported the movement of the "populists". The study also shows why the program of the "third way" cannot be considered as a program of socialism.
The 9/11 of 1973 military coup, the brutal eradication of the socialist attempt and the murder of president Salvador Allende was a tragedy in world history – as it obvious from a perspective. The questions raised by the author are still valid: is it possible to transform the society if bourgeois institutions and its constitution are maintained, is it worth to study analyses missing class relations etc. The Chilean story has to be retold – as poet Attila József also warns – that no victory can be won by chance, without a battle.
Original article: Gabriel García Márquez: Why Allende had to die. Sedition in Santiago, The New Satetesman 3 April 2013 http://www.newstatesman.com/world-affairs/2013/04/why-allende-had-die