This social philosophical analysis started out from the questioning of the existence of classes. He differentiates between and juxtaposes the "economic" and "social" approaches to class relations and analyses the mistaken alternative which has taken the dual tradition of economist (social democratic) and overpoliticised (Leninist) form. He re-formulates the Marxist thesis that class is a sensible category only as a relationship and states that the idea of the working class is inseparable from the presence of the workers,' movement. From this he deducts the thesis the "class party" is contradictory in itself. He too, considers as the essence of modern capitalism the fact that it exists as a world system, as the division of the different societies on the basis of their development is a basic precondition of the reproduction of capital. As a consequence, he denies the existence of "world bourgeoisie" and "world proletariat", as even the struggle of interests in the world system is waged in the form of the struggle of nations.